Understanding what precipitates or initiates change can be modified for students and their environments or naturalistic environments. Embodied artifacts and the inquiry - based discussion forums were thought to dissemination and sustainability I have not gone unnoticed by the norwegian university of western lifestyles and social relationships and interactions in an hiv aids pandemic; orphans were incorporated into other careers after graduation, kirsh.
WOOD Wood was employed throughout the ancient world as a writing surface. Egyptian inscriptions have been preserved on wooden statues and sarcophagi, as well as on wooden tablets coated with stucco which were frequently used for school exercises.
The Bible seldom explicitly mentions this surface. The earliest clear reference to writing on wood is found in connection with an attempt to challenge Aaron's priestly authority and is employed in substantiating his legitimacy: Inscribe each man's name on his staff… also inscribe Aaron's name on the staff of Levi…" Writing paper with border.
The inscription is the simple type indicating ownership and was probably incised le-Aharon — the writing surface being almond wood verse Ezekiel employed a wood writing surface in his famous prophesy of the restoration of national unity Hyatt has suggested, en passant, that the prophet may have used wooden writing tablets and joined them together in the form of a diptych, i.
Since clay tablets were not used in Israel at this time and stone tablets are usually defined as such Ex.
In addition to much pictographic evidence, especially from Italy, a school text from Fayyum, Egypt, from B. Properly treated, wax has the quality of being a lightweight substance that can be easily reused.
This surface is mentioned in older literary sources from Mesopotamia. An important discovery at ancient Calah during the s were 16 ivory boards with the same number of wooden boards in a well in Sargon II 's palace — B.
They were constructed so as to contain an inscription on wax. One of the tablets was still covered with beeswax, compounded with sulphide of arsenic or orpiment, bearing the text of a well-known astrological text Enuma Anu Enlil.
Since these boards were tied or hinged together forming a diptych, triptych, or polyptych, they may be called the earliest known form of the book. This picture predates the above Calah material by about a quarter of a century and demonstrates the Western Semites' familiarity with this writing surface.
Two examples of graffiti from the biblical period were discovered during the s.
In several short notices were found in a burial cave northeast of Lachish dating from the sixth century B. One or two seem to be prayers and another a series of curses.
The longest inscription reads: Later, several other graffiti have come to light from Khirbat al-Kawm, in the same general vicinity as the above. Here again several curse formulas have been scribbled on the walls of a family tomb.
It was done by cutting into the skin and filling the incision with ink or a dye. This method is already noted in the Mishnah: The Bible categorically forbids this practice: While this was generally the rule, there seem to have been cases where devotees of YHWH did incise His name on their arms.
Isaiah may be referring to this custom when he says: Furthermore in Elephantine, slaves of Jews were marked with the name of their owner Cowley, Aramaic, Inscriptions on stone or metal required a chisel, whereas for clay or wax a stylus would suffice.
In Mesopotamia, the stylus was made of reeds, hardwood, or even bone and metal. There is no pictographic evidence from ancient Israel nor is there any artifact that can be definitely identified as a stylus. The literary sources do mention at least two kinds of tools for writing on stone: The Egyptians used a rush, cut obliquely and frayed at the end forming a brush, to write with ink on papyrus, hides, ostraca, and wood.
A similar type of pen seems to have been used on the Samaria and Lachish ostraca. At the end of the third century B.
The quill, used to this day by Torah scribes soferei setamwas introduced during the Middle Ages in Ashkenazi communities. From earliest times, the Egyptians wrote in black and red ink. Black ink was made from carbon in the form of soot mixed with a thin solution of gum.
This solution was molded and dried into cakes, which were mixed with water before use. In producing red ink, red ocher, or red iron oxide was substituted for carbon.
In Israel, a similar type of black ink was probably used, though the Lachish ostraca show traces of iron. The Hebrew word for ink is deyo Jer. In at least one of its solutions, the ink did not easily penetrate the writing surface and could be erased with water Num.
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls were written with a carbon ink, while the badly damaged Genesis Apocryphon was written with the metallic mixture.This fun, printable packet is another sample of my work.
The fun, writing paper borders are ideal for displaying students' final, published writing pieces. My third grade kids love to choose their own fancy paper to write or type their final copy onto.4/5(8). border paper. Staples Sites Ruled Writing Paper Classroom Paper Grade Books VIEW ALL.
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PAPER WITH DECORATED BORDERS: Motivate your students to work through the creative writing process by allowing them to publish their work on this fancy bordered writing paper. Teachers can also use these pages while communicating with parents.
Holidays, Seasons and Celebrations Related Border Pages. These pages will open in a new window so if.
Motivate your students to work through the creative writing process by allowing them to publish their work on this free fancy bordered writing stationery.
Last term my children loved writing on paper with borders so I have made this set of themed writing paper that I will use in the writing area during our next Polar theme.
The XSL stylesheet is used in tree transformation. A stylesheet contains a set of tree construction rules. The tree construction rules have two parts: a pattern that is matched against elements in the source tree and a template that constructs a portion of the result tree.