Facts about the brain: The brain contains around billion neurons. We have all our neurons when we are babies, but they aren't yet connected as in an adult.
Conversely, it is possible to fall ill despite living a life of unruffled stability. The Healing Mind Since the dawn of civilization, mental illness has fascinated us.
In ancient times, unusual and bizarre behaviors were thought to be caused by gods. Other societies believed that these behaviors were due to possession by incubi and demons. More recent theories included organ malfunction, such as the belief that hysteria was caused by a wandering uterus.
More recent theories have included suppressed memory, trauma, poor parenting, and refrigerator mothers. The most wildly held belief of mental maladies today is that they are a manifestation of unruly neurotransmitters.
For the last several decades, the field of mental health has been dominated by two major paradigms: Up until a century ago, mental illnesses were diagnosed and treated by medical doctors.
Soon afterward, psychotherapy delivered by non-medical professionals began to be considered a valid way to treat mental disorders. Medical illnesses can cause people to experience a baffling array of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral problems. People suffering from these problems are usually unaware of their maladies.
If there are accompanying medical problems e. In addition, psychological reactions to known medical problems can complicate medical management and treatment.
Whenever a patient presents a psychological problem, there is a very real possibility that an underlying medical condition may be a factor — either as an outcome of the psychological condition or as the original cause.
Understanding the role that biological processes play in that disorder can often help you recognize telltale signs of medical causes of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional disturbances.
Although most patients will not have a causative underlying medical condition, the growing impact of environmental toxins, drug interactions, and degenerative diseases have increased the possibility that there is a medical origin for the condition.
While psychotherapists should not live in fear of missing an unsuspected medical origin, it is important to have adequate knowledge of the medical issues that could potentially relate to their patients' conditions.
This course will provide an overview and source of reference to help make a basic assessment to determine whether medical consultation might add insight to a case. Naturally, it is not intended to provide psychotherapists with the tools needed to diagnose these medical conditions.
It will, however, lay the groundwork to allow a therapist to speak in a knowledgeable way with consulting physicians and improve the likelihood of a good evaluation for the patient.
Although not every mental health problem is masking a primary medical condition, one thing is certain — when there is an underlying medical component, psychotherapists who do not consider the possibility are certain to miss the diagnosis. A family comes to a psychotherapist for help because the middle child has been defiant and difficult.
He refuses to go to bed at night. During the day, he is hyper-reactive and non-compliant. This often leads to family squabbles, which frequently morph into arguments between the parents. As the therapist works with the family, it becomes clear that the fights are exacerbated by the husband's angry outbursts and bouts of rage.
Although the family works hard to improve its coping skills, communication, and problem-solving abilities, the conflicts persist.
It is a baffling situation. Neither the therapist nor the family members are aware that the father, who lives on a diet of fast food, has developed extremely low levels of omega 3 fatty acids. This medical condition, not his emotional profile, is the root cause of his anger and rage. Without a physical and lab testing, this problem will likely not be detected.
Although many psychotherapists are aware of the possibility that underlying physical conditions can cause or exacerbate emotional issues, the reality is that a majority of mental health practitioners spend most of their time treating uncomfortable feelings or social problems — not mental disorders, much less medical problems.
As a result, they can easily miss the signs that might lead them to recommend a professional medical diagnosis. Even internists and physicians at hospitals often miss the underlying medical causes of mental and emotional issues.
Despite advances in medical technology, there is still no test to definitively identify mental disorders. At best, medical evaluations can provide clues and help eliminate some of the variables.
When the patient's symptoms do not correspond precisely to the reference books or to similar cases they have personally encountered in the past, a physician may make a misdiagnosis as easily as a psychotherapist might.
The challenge of finding potential underlying medical causes is complex. This makes failure to recognize and diagnose an underlying condition in a patient a reasonably common occurrence. Biological Psychology For most psychotherapists, a good proportion of clients come for help in coping with the problems of life.
Outpatient psychotherapy, couples therapy, and family therapy are some of the many techniques designed to address these woes.The Nervous System and Endocrine System.
The autonomic nervous system controls the function of our organs and glands, The pituitary is often referred to as the “master gland” because its messenger hormones control all the other glands in the endocrine system, although it mostly carries out instructions from the hypothalamus.
Start studying A&P Chapter 13 - The Endocrine System. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Agent Orange (Dioxin) and ESOPHAGEAL CANCERS. AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCERS. AS WELL AS OTHER Toxic Chemicals.
ASSOCIATED TO Military Service in Vietnam this IS A DRAFT AND IS NOT COMPLETE. Posted on: Sep 12, · The brain area that most directly controls the activity of the autonomic nervous system is the?
I believe it's the hypothalmus, which is responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Share to. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the autonomic nervous system? controls skeletal muscle What is the name of the endocrine gland that is innervated by the sympathetic division of the nervous system and is a modified sympathetic ganglion?
a single motor neuron directly controls the activity of a muscle. Aug 15, · Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System.
Laurie Kelly McCorry Because it innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and various endocrine and exocrine glands, this nervous system influences the activity of most tissues and organ systems in the body. Specific learning objectives for the discussion of the autonomic nervous.