Tokugawa shogunate

Print Email The downfall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 19th century Japan was brought about by both internal and external factors. Under the Tokugawa rule, the government was a feudal military dictatorship called bakufu, with the shogun at the top. The emperor reigned but did not rule; he was only a symbol to be worshipped. It was the shogun who actually ruled Japan.

Tokugawa shogunate

Inhe composed the Kuge Shohatto, a document intended to perpetuate Tokugawa supremacy by putting the court daimyo under strict supervision, requiring their attendance at the shogunal court and restricting the building of castles, leaving the daimyo as mere ceremonial figureheads.

Tokugawa Period and Meiji Restoration - HISTORY

Biography Early Life — Ieyasu was born on January 31, in the Mikawa province, several miles east of Nagoya, Japanduring a brutal era of continual civil strife.

His mother and father were step-brother and step-sister to each other, and were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. Two years later, O-Dai-no-kata was sent back to her family and the couple never lived together again. Both husband and wife remarried and both had more children; Ieyasu ended up with 11 half-brothers and sisters.

The Matsudaira family was split: As a result, much of Ieyasu's early life was Tokugawa shogunate in danger as wars were fought between the Oda and Imagawa clans. Unlike his father and the majority of his branch of the family, Ieyasu's father, Hirotada, favored the Imagawa clan.

Inwhen the Oda clan invaded Mikawa, Hirotada turned to Imagawa Yoshimoto, the Tokugawa shogunate of the Imagawa clan, for help to repel the invaders.


Oda Nobuhide, the leader of the Oda clan, learned of this arrangement and had six-year-old Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sumpu. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu unless his father severed all ties with the Imagawa Tokugawa shogunate.

Hirotada replied that sacrificing his own son would show the seriousness of his pact with the Imagawa. Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him for the next three years at the Manshoji Temple in Nagoya.

InIeyasu's father Hirotada died of natural causes at the age of Around the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. The deaths dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan.

An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Imagawa Sessai made an offer to Oda Nobunaga Oda Nobuhide's second son to give up the siege if Ieyasu were handed over to the Imagawa clan.

Nobunaga accepted, and Ieyasu now nine was taken as a hostage to Sumpu, where he lived in comfort, as a potentially useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until he was He was allowed to return to his native Mikawa, and ordered by the Imagawa to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles.

Ieyasu won his first battle at the Siege of Terabe and later, in a bold night attack, succeeded in delivering supplies to a border fort. Inthe leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga.

Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large Imagawa army perhaps 20, strong attacked the Oda clan territory. Ieyasu, with his Mikawa troops, captured a fort at the border and then stayed there to defend it. As a result, Ieyasu and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama, where Yoshimoto was killed in a surprise assault by Oda Nobunaga.

With Yoshimoto dead, Ieyasu decided to ally himself with the Oda clan. It was necessary to negotiate in secret because Ieyasu's wife and infant son, Matsudaira Nobuyasu, were hostages of the Imagawa clan in Sumpu. InIeyasu openly broke with the Imagawa and captured the fortress of Kaminojo, then exchanged the wife and daughter of the ruler of Kaminojo castle for his wife and son.

Ieyasu spent the next few years reforming the Matsudaira clan and pacifying Mikawa, in the area that today forms the eastern half of Aichi Prefecture. In one battle Ieyasu was nearly killed when he was struck by a bullet which did not penetrate his armor.

Tokugawa shogunate

In Ieyasu took a new surname, Tokugawa, and the personal name of Ieyasu. In this way he claimed descent from the Minamoto clan, though no proof has actually been found of this relationship. Ieyasu remained an ally of Oda Nobunaga, and his Mikawa soldiers were part of Nobunaga's army when it captured Kyoto in At the same time, Ieyasu was expanding his own territory.

He made an alliance with Takeda Shingenhead of the Takeda clan in Kai Province, for the purpose of conquering all the Imagawa territory.

InIeyasu's troops captured Totomi province now western Shizuko prefecturewhile Shingen's troops captured Suruga province including the Imagawa capital of Sumpu.

Tokugawa Shogunate - History of Japan

Ieyasu then ended his alliance with Takeda and sheltered their former enemy, Imagawa Ujizane; he also formed an alliance with Uesugi Kenshin of the Uesugi clan, an enemy of the Takeda clan. Later that year, Ieyasu led five thousand of his own men in support of Nobunaga at the Battle of Anegawa against the Asai and Asakura clans.

Ieyasu asked for help from Nobunaga, who sent him some three thousand troops. Nobunaga's troops soon fled, and the Takeda army, under the expert direction of Shingen, hammered at Ieyasu's remaining troops until they were broken and Ieyasu fled to a nearby castle with just five men.

This was a major defeat for Ieyasu, but Shingen was unable to exploit his victory because Ieyasu quickly gathered a new army and refused to fight Shingen again on the battlefield. One year later, Takeda Shingen died in a siege and was succeeded by his less capable son, Takeda Katsuyori.

In the Takeda army attacked Nagashino Castle in Mikawa province. Ieyasu appealed for assistance to Oda Nobunaga, who personally came to his aid at the head of his very large army about 30, strong. For the next seven years, Ieyasu and Katsuyori fought a series of small battles and Ieyasu's troops managed to wrest control of Suruga province away from the Takeda clan.Tokugawa period, also called Edo period, (–), the final period of traditional Japan, a time of internal peace, political stability, and economic growth under the shogunate (military dictatorship) founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu; 徳川 家康) (January 31, – June 1, ) was a Japanese warrior and the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in until the Meiji Restoration in A gifted leader and brilliant general, early in his career he helped Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi unify Japan.

Other articles where Tokugawa shogunate is discussed: Hotta Masayoshi: the emperor and toppled the Tokugawa shogunate in Explore the history, politics, and economics of the last medieval government in Japan: the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Get a small glimpse of Japanese. Ieyasu Tokugawa is the founder of the Tokugawa clan. He is known in contemporary times as one of the three unifiers of Japan, preceded by Nobunaga Oda and Hideyoshi is best known for establishing the Tokugawa shogunate, the last military regime of its kind in Japanese history.

Han: Han,, in Japanese history, fief controlled by a daimyo, or territorial lord, during the Tokugawa period (–). The han evolved during the 15th century when local daimyo gradually came into military and civil control of their own domains. In the warfare that took place among them at the end of.

Han | Japanese government unit |