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Abstract Energetic materials comprise both explosives and propellants. When released to the biosphere, energetics are xenobiotic contaminants which pose toxic hazards to ecosystems, humans, and other biota. Energetic materials undergo varying degrees of chemical and biochemical transformation depending on the compounds involved and environmental factors.
This paper addresses the occurrence of energetic materials in soils including a discussion of their fates after contact with soil.
Introduction Energetic compounds, defined as the active chemical components of explosives and propellants, are necessary both for peaceful e. Commonly used military energetic compounds include the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene TNThexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine RDXand octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine HMX [ 1 ].
Nitroglycerin NGThesis on phytoremediation NQnitrocellulose NC2,4-dinitrotoluene DNTand various perchlorate formulations are employed in missile, rocket, and gun propellants [ 23 ]. The chemical structures of these compounds appear in Figure 1.
Chemical structures of energetic compounds: As a result of military activities and due to improper management and disposal practices many energetic substances and their by-products have contaminated environments to levels Thesis on phytoremediation threaten the health of humans, livestock, wildlife, and ecosystems.
Mutagenicity studies have been carried out using TNT and its metabolites on Salmonella strains and mammalian cell lines [ 8 — 11 ]. The effects of RDX on mammals are generally characterized by convulsions.
Factory employees in Europe and the US have suffered convulsions, unconsciousness, vertigo, and vomiting after RDX exposure [ 15 ]. Information is limited concerning health effects of HMX [ 16 ]. Acute exposure to NG can cause headaches, nausea, convulsions, cyanosis, circulatory collapse, or death [ 1920 ].
Chronic exposure may result in severe headaches, hallucinations, and skin rashes [ 21 ]. Perchlorate adversely affects human health by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland [ 22 ].
Energetic compounds may enter the soil environment via numerous avenues including [ 23 — 28 ] the following: Soil contamination by energetics at manufacturing sites, conflict areas, and military ranges is an international concern.
In the US alone, thousands of military sites are listed as contaminated by energetic compounds [ 2729 ]. Approximately 50 million acres are affected by bombing and other training activities [ 30 — 32 ].
An even greater number of contaminated sites may exist in Europe and Asia [ 33 ]. Significant public health emergencies resulting from soil contamination have launched demands by local citizenry for remediation measures [ 34 ]. During the past two decades an increased environmental awareness has compelled military agencies in the US, Canada, and many European and Asian nations to identify sites of energetics contamination and to evaluate the impacts of military activities on the quality of soil, groundwater, and surface water.
Types of Energetic Materials Energetic compounds are chemicals that, when exposed to physical or chemical stimuli, decompose extremely rapidly with the evolution of energy in the form of flame, heat, and light.
In addition, rapid liberation of heat causes the gaseous products of the reaction e. Explosives Explosives are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary based on their susceptibility to initiation. Primary explosives are highly sensitive to initiation and include silver azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate.
Primary explosives are often used to initiate secondary explosives in a so-called firing train [ 35 ]. Their environmental fate will be addressed in this paper. Tertiary explosives, also termed blasting agents, are so insensitive to shock that they cannot be detonated by reasonable quantities of primary explosive and instead require a secondary explosive.
A common tertiary explosive is a physical mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil. Composition of common military energetic materials adapted from [ 363839 ]. Organic secondary explosives can be further divided into nitroaromatics, nitramines, and nitrate esters.
Nitroaromatics, which include TNT, tetryl, and ammonium picrate, contain NO2 groups bonded to carbon atoms on the aromatic ring. Nitramines contain NO2 groups bonded to nitrogen present within an alicyclic ring, for example, RDX and HMX; nitrate esters contain NO2 groups bonded to an oxygen atom attached to an aliphatic carbon, for example, nitroglycerin.
In addition to the infusion of specialized compounds, an explosive formulation may contain impurities or decomposition by-products. It is one of the most common bulk explosives in use today both in military ordnance and in mining and quarrying operations. TNT is used as a booster for high-explosive munitions.
It is used alone and in mixtures with other energetic compounds e. TNT is chemically and thermally stable, has a low melting point, and is amenable for melt casting [ 36 ]. TNT is popular in the military and industry because of its insensitivity to shock and friction, which reduces the risk of accidental detonation [ 35 ].
Physical and chemical properties of selected explosives and propellants.Datacentrix essays Existentialism essay thesis writing. Essays functionalism and marxism today chemistry research papers ks2 a good thesis statement for a research paper quizlet jess and ricky towie argumentative .
Abstract—Phytoremediation is an emerging and eco-friendly green engineering technology that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated soils, water and sediments.
Soil contamination by various inorganic and organic.
TROPIMUNDO is an EC-funded and excellence-labelled Erasmus Mundus Masters Course in Tropical Biodiversity and Ecosystems. We aim to bring together expert Higher Education Institutes (HEI), with long-standing worldwide expertise in tropical rainforests and woodlands and in .
Abstract. Scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the possible sources, chemistry, potential biohazards and best available remedial strategies for a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury and nickel) commonly found in contaminated soils.
The ESAI is an association of individuals working in or with an interest in the environmental area in Ireland. Our aim is to facilitate communication and interaction between persons interested in the environment through colloquia, seminars, workshops and publications.
E02 - DEVELOPMENTS IN ENGINEERING. Note: Subject matter will vary from term to term and from year to ashio-midori.comts may re-register for these courses, providing that the course content has changed. Changes in content will be indicated by the letter following .