Alvin Burstein with J.
A total of 12 observers independently annotated emotional episodes regarding their temporal location and duration. The nature of an emotion was characterized with basic attributes, such as arousal and valence, as well as explicit emotion category labels. In addition, annotations include a record of the perceptual evidence for the presence of an emotion.
Two variants of the movie were annotated separately: We present reliability and consistency estimates that suggest that both stimuli can be used to study visual and auditory emotion cue processing in real-life like situations.
Raw annotations from all observers are publicly released in full in order to maximize their utility for a wide range of applications and possible future extensions. In addition, aggregate time series of inter-observer agreement with respect to particular attributes of portrayed emotions are provided to facilitate adoption of these data.
Using prolonged complex naturalistic stimuli, such as this one, is one approach to study cognitive processing in situations that resemble real-life contexts more closely than controlled laboratory settings typically employed to investigate individual cognitive functions in isolation 2.
However, multidimensional stimuli and the resulting lack of experimental control can make it harder to isolate the intervening parameters 2. The goal of this study was to extend the information about this movie stimulus in order to enable further analysis of the already published brain imaging data as well as to investigate the utility of this particular stimulus for future studies and additional data acquisitions.
To this end, we focused on a highly relevant aspect of social cognition that is, at the same time, difficult to infer from an audio-visual stimulus by means of computer algorithms: The presentation of movies clips to elicit emotional responses is an established component of emotion research, in particular with respect to more differentiated emotional states, such as remorse or pride, that go beyond primary emotions, like fear, in complexity and time-scale 3.
Emotion cues in movies can be manifold: Moreover, the emotional response to a stimulus in a real-life setting is further dependent on additional factors. For example, observing a facial expression of sadness may yield an emotional response of pity or satisfaction, depending on whether the person is a friend or a punished offender of social norms.
A smiling face is not an expression of happiness when the larger context identifies it as a strategy to avoid unpleasant social interactions a fake smile. Consequently, labeling portrayed emotions in feature films is a task that requires human observers to perform complex judgments.
Two groups of frameworks for systematic description of emotions are distinguished in the literature: Models using discrete emotion labels vary considerably in the number of differentiated emotion states. Many theories assume few basic, innate emotions 8 ; others discriminate up to 36 affective categories 9.
Dimensional models, for example the circumplex model, locate different emotional states in a two-dimensional space, commonly using the axes arousal and valence However, they typically involve following complex instructions regarding the interpretation of facial expressions or other physical and cultural indicators of emotion 11p.
While these tools provide reliable procedures for rating emotions, they are not very intuitive and are consequently only accessible to experts. In this study, the primary goal was not to generate an objective labeling of portrayed emotions in the Forrest Gump movie.
Congruent with our goal to enable further studies of already published brain imaging data, we rather aimed at producing a description of the emotional content of the Forrest Gump movie stimulus as it was likely perceived by the participants in our past and future brain imaging studies potentially biased by age, native language, or education.
Therefore, our approach was to collect data from multiple observers that stem from the same student population, using a simplified procedure that does not require extensive training. The resulting dataset of annotations of portrayed emotions combines a dimensional rating with a categorical labeling of emotions and a description of their associated perceptual evidence.
In the following, we provide evidence that our procedure yielded a reliable description that can be used to segment the movie into episodes of portrayed emotions.Forrest seems often blissfully free from and immune to social prejudice, competitive malice, or self-loathing.
He is not burdened to intervene at every step, nor does he make the mistake so common for those in the American culture of perceiving control where he has none.
Case Study: Forrest Gump Chris Chan, Tyler Senini, Reuben Friesen and Jennie Nielsen November 2, Cognitive development - Forrest Gump has speech issues and is often called stupid. Chapter 6 states that attachment can help with achievement and social competence.
Social Cognitive Theory: Its Forrest Gump a humble slow man with an IQ of 75 who triumphs through many important events through American history from ’s to . Run Jenny Run: The Social-Cognitive Analysis of Jenny Curran in Forest Gump February 20, Capella University CST – Theories of Personality Introduction This paper will be a two-part personality analysis of Jenny from the movie Forrest Gump ().
Racism, Society and the Vietnam War in the ’s in Forrest Gump. is a medium that recreates all sorts of era’s, landscapes and scenarios, from the daily life of an ant, to the farthest reaches of the universe.
Forrest Gump is a complex and interesting lead character and provides a unique contrast to typical early adulthood behavior. In the film, from the time he attends college, towards the end of the film where he begins his role as a father, Forrest goes through normal events that occur in .