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Click for larger view The above photograph shows Ron London and Bill Mottern setting up their low power x-ray machine, the same device that was at least in part responsible for the seizing of all of STURP's equipment by Italian customs upon its arrival in Italy back in The wooden crate that housed the x-ray machine had a radiation sticker on the outside, and that apparently raised enough concern to cause the customs officials to seize everything and refuse to release it upon our arrival. We arrived a week prior to the scheduled start of our examination while the Shroud was still on public display in order to unpack, set up and calibrate all our instruments and equipment so we would be fully prepared when the Shroud was brought to us.

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I NQUIRY Fundamentally, the various scientific disciplines are alike in their reliance on evidence, the use of hypothesis and theories, the kinds of logic used, and much more.

Nevertheless, scientists differ greatly from one another in what phenomena they investigate and in how they go about their work; in the reliance they place on historical data or on experimental findings and on qualitative or quantitative methods; in their recourse to fundamental principles; and in how much they draw on the findings of other sciences.

Still, the exchange of techniques, information, and concepts goes on all the time among scientists, and there are common understandings among them about what constitutes an investigation that is scientifically valid. Scientific inquiry is not easily described apart from the context of particular investigations.

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There simply is no fixed set of steps that scientists always follow, no one path that leads them unerringly to scientific knowledge. There are, however, certain features of science that give it a distinctive character as a mode of inquiry. Although those features are especially characteristic of the work of professional scientists, everyone can exercise them in thinking scientifically about many matters of interest in everyday life.

Science Demands Evidence Sooner or later, the validity of scientific claims is settled by referring to observations of phenomena. Hence, scientists concentrate on getting accurate data. Such evidence is obtained by observations and measurements taken in situations that range from natural settings such as a forest to completely contrived ones such as the laboratory.

To make their observations, scientists use their own senses, instruments such as microscopes that enhance those senses, and instruments that tap characteristics quite different from what humans can sense such as magnetic fields.

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Scientists observe passively earthquakes, bird migrationsmake collections rocks, shellsand actively probe the world as by boring into the earth's crust or administering experimental medicines. In some circumstances, scientists can control conditions deliberately and precisely to obtain their evidence.

They may, for example, control the temperature, change the concentration of chemicals, or choose which organisms mate with which others.

By varying just one condition at a time, they can hope to identify its exclusive effects on what happens, uncomplicated by changes in other conditions.

Often, however, control of conditions may be impractical as in studying starsor unethical as in studying peopleor likely to distort the natural phenomena as in studying wild animals in captivity.

In such cases, observations have to be made over a sufficiently wide range of naturally occurring conditions to infer what the influence of various factors might be.

Because of this reliance on evidence, great value is placed on the development of better instruments and techniques of observation, and the findings of any one investigator or group are usually checked by others.

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But they tend to agree about the principles of logical reasoning that connect evidence and assumptions with conclusions. Scientists do not work only with data and well-developed theories.

A project created by ISKME. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. How To Get Published. The strength of Science and its online journal sites rests with the strengths of its community of authors, who provide cutting-edge research, incisive scientific commentary. Feb 08,  · Alexandra Elbakyan opened her email to a message from the world’s largest publisher: "YOU HAVE BEEN SUED." The student and programmer runs Sci-Hub, a website with over 64 million academic papers.

Often, they have only tentative hypotheses about the way things may be. Such hypotheses are widely used in science for choosing what data to pay attention to and what additional data to seek, and for guiding the interpretation of data.

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In fact, the process of formulating and testing hypotheses is one of the core activities of scientists. To be useful, a hypothesis should suggest what evidence would support it and what evidence would refute it.

A hypothesis that cannot in principle be put to the test of evidence may be interesting, but it is not likely to be scientifically useful. The use of logic and the close examination of evidence are necessary but not usually sufficient for the advancement of science.EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology.

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Science papers online

Providing researchers with access to millions of scientific documents from journals, books, series, protocols and reference works. Feb 08,  · Alexandra Elbakyan opened her email to a message from the world’s largest publisher: "YOU HAVE BEEN SUED." The student and programmer runs Sci-Hub, a website with over 64 million academic papers.

Definitions of Measures Associated with References, Cites, and Citations.

Chapter 1: The Nature of Science

Total References: Total number of references to other papers that have been resolved to date, for papers in the SSRN eLibrary. Total Citations: Total number of cites to papers in the SSRN eLibrary whose links have been resolved to date. Total Footnotes: Total number of footnotes resolved in the SSRN eLibrary.

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