Your kidneys and lungs attempt to maintain a slightly alkaline pH of 7. Diet has a large role in its ability to maintain that beautiful balance of 7. An overly acidic body is known as acidosis, at which point the body can not function properly as it should. This can lead to heart disease, general joint pain, diabetes, cancerand even just depression.
In temperate areas the aerial parts of a perennial die back to the ground at the end of each growing season and new shoots are produced the following season from such subterranean parts as bulbsrhizomescormstubersand stolons.
If depressed at least twice, thin pressure-sensitive hairs in the trap stimulate the lobes to clamp tightly over an insect. These primary organs constitute the vegetative nonreproductive plant body. Together, the stem and its attached leaves constitute the shoot.
Collectively, the roots of an individual plant make up the root system and the shoots the shoot system. A typical dicotyledonous plant.
Root systems The roots anchor a plant, absorb water and minerals, and provide a storage area for food. The two basic types of root systems are a primary root system and an adventitious root system. The most common type, the primary system, consists of a taproot primary root that grows vertically downward positive geotropism.
From the taproot are produced smaller lateral roots secondary roots that grow horizontally or diagonally. These secondary roots further produce their own smaller lateral roots tertiary roots. Thus, many orders of Plant body of descending size are produced from a single prominent root, the taproot.
Most dicotyledons produce taproots, as, for example, the dandelion Taraxacum officinale. In some cases, the taproot system is modified into a fibrousor diffuse, system, in which the initial secondary roots soon equal or exceed the primary root in size.
The result is several large, positively geotropic roots that produce higher-order roots, which may also grow to the same size.
Thus, in fibrous root systems there is no well-defined single taproot. In general, fibrous root systems are shallower than taproot systems. The second type of root system, the adventitious root system, differs from the primary variety in that the primary root is often short-lived and is replaced or supplemented by many roots that form from the stem.
Most monocotyledons have adventitious roots; examples include orchids Orchidaceaebromeliads Bromeliaceaeand many other epiphytic plants in the tropics. Grasses Poaceae and many other monocotyledons produce fibrous root systems with the development of adventitious roots.
Adventitious roots, when modified for aerial support, are called prop rootsas in corn or some figs Ficus ; Moraceae.
In many tropical rainforest trees, large woody prop roots develop from adventitious roots on horizontal branches and provide additional anchorage and support.
Many bulbous plants have contractile adventitious roots that pull the bulb deeper into the ground as it grows. Climbing plants often grip their supports with specialized adventitious roots. Some lateral roots of mangroves become specialized as pneumatophores in saline mud flats; pneumatophores are lateral roots that grow upward negative geotropism for varying distances and function as the site of oxygen intake for the submerged primary root system.
The plants mentioned above are only a few examples of root diversity in angiosperms, a condition that is unparalleled in any other vascular plant group. Pneumatophores of the black mangrove Avicennia germinans encrusted with salt and a young seedling projecting above the surface of the water.
Thomas Eisner Many primary root and adventitious root systems have become modified for special functions, the most common being the formation of tuberous fleshy roots for food storage.
For example, carrots and beets are tuberous roots that are modified from taproots, and cassava manioc is a tuberous root that is modified from an adventitious root. Tuberson the other hand, are modified, fleshy, underground stems and will be discussed below.
Page 1 of The organization of the plant body of the oldest known land plants, the Psilophytales, suggests that the differentiation of the vegetative plant into leaf, stem and root is a result of evolutionary development from an originally simple axial structure (Arnold, ; Eames, ).
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The plant body of most vascular plants consists of an aboveground part, the shoot system, which includes stems, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits, and a belowground part, the root system, composed of main roots and branches (Fig. ). Body Glide® is the Leader in Anti Chafing & Blister Prevention Products.
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