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The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks. The rise of information science in the middle fifties is a testimony of this.
For a science like information science IS it is of course important how its fundamental terms are defined, and in IS as in other fields the problem of how to define information is often raised. This review is an attempt to overview the present status of the information concept in IS with a view also to interdisciplinary trends.
In scientific discourses theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or pictures of some part of reality, but are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way. Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful depending on what theories and in the end what practical actions they are expected to support.
In Chapter 1, we discuss the problems of defining terms in the light of the philosophy of science. The history of a word tells us mostly only anecdotes that are peripheral to the concept itself. But in our case the use of the word information points to a specific perspective under which the concept of knowledge communication was defined and designated.
We explore this history in Chapter 2 and we believe that our results may help to better understand the complexity of this concept also with regard to its scientific definitions.
The discussions about the information concept in other disciplines are also very important for Information Science because many theories and approaches in Information Science have their origins in other disciplines. This is surveyed in Chapter 3.
The epistemological concept of information has lead also to a new perspective of non-human information processes particularly in physics and biology. This can be illustrated also in physical terms with regard to release mechanisms as we suggest at the end of Chapter 3.
Our overview of the concept of information in the natural sciences as well as in the humanities and social sciences does not aim at exploring different theories in depth.
In most cases we can only refer to fragments of theories that the user may interpret within her own background or follow the hints of the bibliography. Readers mostly interested in information science may get more satisfied with Chapter 4 where we bring a more detailed explanation of diverse views and theories of information within our field, supplementing the ARIST article by Cornelius We show that the introduction of the concept of information about to what was formerly special librarianship and documentation in itself has had serious consequences for the kind of knowledge and theories developed in our field.
The important question is not only what meaning we give to the term in Information Science, but also how it relates to other basic terms such as documents, texts and knowledge. The development and widespread use of computer networks since the end of World War II, and the emergence of information science as a discipline in the s, are evidence of this focus.
Although knowledge and its communication are basic phenomena of every human society, it is the rise of information technology and its global impacts that characterize ours as as an information society.
It is commonplace to consider information as a basic condition for economic development together with capital, labor, and raw material; but what makes information especially significant at present is its digital nature. The impact of information technology on the natural and social sciences has made this everyday notion a highly controversial concept.
Claude Shannon's "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is a landmark work, referring to the common use of information with its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, while at the same redefining the concept within an engineering framework. The fact that the concept of knowledge communication has been designated with the word information seems, prima facie, a linguistic happenstance.
For a science like information science IS it is of course important how fundamental terms are defined; and in IS, as in other fields, the question of how to define information is often raised.
This chapter is an attempt to review the status of the concept of information in IS, with reference also to interdisciplinary trends. In scientific discourse, theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or glimpses of some element of reality; rather, they are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way.
Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful, depending on the theories and in the end, the practical actions they are expected to support. In the opening section, we discuss the problem of defining terms from the perspective of the philosophy of science.
The history of a word provides us with anecdotes that are tangential to the concept itself. But in our case, the use of the word information points to a specific perspective from which the concept of knowledge communication has been defined.
This perspective includes such characteristics as novelty and relevance; i.Foundations of linguistics as a science, in relation to cognitive science, philosophy, and psychology, including a critical overview of the research program initiated by Noam Chomsky.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
The objects of discourse analysis (discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event) are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences.
Some of the tenets of CDA could already be found in the critical theory of the Frankfurt School before World War II (Agger b; Drake ; Rasmussen and media discourse, lawyers legal discourse, and politicians policy and other public 2 Research in Critical Discourse Analysis.
The list below is grouped by the ways in which the contractions are formed, and also by similarity of the part omitted: Using the first two or three consonants.
The applications of socialization theory to SLA are principally in the realm of discourse and pragmatic development (Duff, Language Socialization, Participation and . Discourse Theory On Second Language Acquisition.
The discourse theory has great implications in an educational context. It shows how written, visual and oral texts give more depth to the texts when the context is understood.