There is a deep silence that comes with losing your spouse. I mean, what was she thinking? We could call up any number of people if we just wanted to hang out. But we are alone.
Kazimir MalevichBlack Square, oil on canvas, Judd's sculpture was showcased in at Green Gallery in Manhattan, as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like Leo Castelli Gallery and Pace Gallery also began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction.
In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway also in that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvasColor Fieldand Hard-edge painting.
Klein had painted monochromes as early asand held the first private exhibition of this work in —but his first public showing was the publication of the Artist's book Yves: Peintures in November Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the s and s.
Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg 's claims about modernist painting's  reduction to surface and materials so much as take his claims literally. According to Lawson, minimalism was the result, even though the term "minimalism" was not generally embraced by the artists associated with it, and many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such.
Also taking exception to this claim was Clement Greenberg himself; in his postscript to his essay Modernist Painting he disavowed this interpretation of what he said, writing: There have been some further constructions of what I wrote that go over into preposterousness: That I regard flatness and the inclosing of flatness not just as the limiting conditions of pictorial art, but as criteria of aesthetic quality in pictorial art; that the further a work advances the self-definition of an art, the better that work is bound to be.
The philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article.
They very explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, and unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was 'objective'.
In general, minimalism's features included geometricoften cubic forms purged of much metaphorequality of parts, repetitionneutral surfaces, and industrial materials.
Robert Morrisa theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1—3", originally published across three issues of Artforum in In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries.
These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt — "parts Beyond Objects", originally published in Artforum,continuing on to say that "indeterminacy of arrangement of parts is a literal aspect of the physical existence of the thing.
One of the first artists specifically associated with minimalism was the painter Frank Stellafour of whose early "black paintings" were included in the show, 16 Americansorganized by Dorothy Miller at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
The width of the stripes in Frank Stellas's black paintings were often determined by the dimensions of the lumber he used for stretchers to support the canvas, visible against the canvas as the depth of the painting when viewed from the side.
Stella's decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, but pre-conditioned by a "given" feature of the physical construction of the support.
In the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, "Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his painting.
Stella received immediate attention from the MoMA show, but other artists—including Kenneth NolandGene DavisRobert Motherwelland Robert Ryman —had also begun to explore stripes, monochromatic and Hard-edge formats from the late 50s through the s. Donald Judd had started as a painter, and ended as a creator of objects.
His seminal essay, "Specific Objects" published in Arts Yearbook 8,was a touchstone of theory for the formation of minimalist aesthetics.
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In this essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, and a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values. He pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including Jasper JohnsDan Flavin and Lee Bontecou.
Of "preliminary" importance for Judd was the work of George Earl Ortman who had concretized and distilled painting's forms into blunt, tough, philosophically charged geometries.
These Specific Objects inhabited a space not then comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, and that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd.
This movement was heavily criticized by modernist formalist art critics and historians. Some critics thought minimal art represented a misunderstanding of the modern dialectic of painting and sculpture as defined by critic Clement Greenbergarguably the dominant American critic of painting in the period leading up to the s.
The most notable critique of minimalism was produced by Michael Frieda formalist critic, who objected to the work on the basis of its "theatricality". In Art and Objecthood published in Artforum in June he declared that the minimal work of art, particularly minimal sculpture, was based on an engagement with the physicality of the spectator.
He argued that work like Robert Morris's transformed the act of viewing into a type of spectaclein which the artifice of the act observation and the viewer's participation in the work were unveiled.
Fried saw this displacement of the viewer's experience from an aesthetic engagement within, to an event outside of the artwork as a failure of minimal art. Fried's essay was immediately challenged by postminimalist and earth artist Robert Smithson in a letter to the editor in the October issue of Artforum.
Smithson stated the following: Ad Reinhardtactually an artist of the Abstract Expressionist generation, but one whose reductive nearly all-black paintings seemed to anticipate minimalism, had this to say about the value of a reductive approach to art: The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is.The term minimalism is also used to describe a trend in design and architecture, wherein the subject is reduced to its necessary elements.
 Minimalist architectural designers focus on the connection between two perfect planes, elegant lighting, and the void spaces left by the removal of three-dimensional shapes in an architectural design.
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From The Advanced Writing Handbook for ESOL by John Sparks. Used with permission. - 49 - Definition Essay A definition essay goes beyond just a dictionary definition of a word.
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My Room A secluded island with warm sandy beaches, a sunset over high cropped mountains, or the beauty and serenity of silence in a magnificent forest. In this sense, Virgina Woolf's essay A Room of One's Own can be called a revolution.
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