A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information. Topics include the accounting cycle, the preparation of financial statements, the measurement and reporting of business income, and the valuation and presentation of assets and current liabilities. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of the business and economic information generated by the accounting process and how it is used in personal and business decision making. A continuation of financial accounting topics followed by an introduction to managerial accounting.
In only one instance did a librarian first suggest preservation, and there were no first mentions by either funder or host department. One respondent noted they were not interested in preservation of the project.
Preservation Strategy Version control, migration, metadata creation, emulation, durable persistent media, and bit stream preservation are just a few strategies for preserving digital materials. We asked respondents to rate each strategy by importance figure 8.
Preservation strategies by importance All respondents reported that they backup their work in some capacity.
GitHub was mentioned by two respondents as a safe storage solution for their projects. Interview Findings Through follow-up interviews with five respondents, we delved into several of these projects in greater detail. Interviewees gave us more information about their projects and their partnerships, processes, and policies for the preserving the work.
DH Coordinator Interview conducted and summarized by Nik Dragovic Respondent 1 was a coordinator in a Digital Humanities Center at their institution and had undertaken the work in collaboration with librarian colleagues because the library works closely with researchers on DH projects at this particular institution.
This initiative was unique in that no preservation measures were being undertaken, a strategy that resulted from discussion during the conception of the project.
The resulting life expectancy for the project, comprising a geography-focused, map-intensive historical resource incorporating additional digital content, was three to four years. The reason for the de-emphasis of preservation stemmed from a shared impression that the complexity of preservation planning acts as a barrier to initiating a project.
Given their intention to produce a library-produced exemplar work rather than a traditional faculty portfolio piece, the initiative was well-suited to this approach. The technical infrastructure of the project included a PHP stack used to dynamically render the contents of a mySQL database.
The general strategy incorporated elements of custom software and open source technologies including Neatline and Omeka. The unique perspective of the respondent as an institutional DH liaison as well as a practitioner made the interview more amenable to a general discussion of the issues facing a broad set of digital humanists and their interaction with library services.
Specifically, the interviewee opined that no one framework, process, or solution exists for those seeking to preserve DH outputs, and that every project must have its own unique elements taken into account. This requires an individual consultation with any project stakeholder concerned with the persistence of their work.
A primary element of such conversations is expectation management. In most cases, the time, cost, and effort required to undertake such preservation measures is untenable. The variegated and transformative code stack environments currently underpinning DH projects is a leading issue in permanent maintenance of the original environment of a DH project.
This technique allows not only for a simpler and more stable preservation format, but also enables storage on GitHub or Apache servers, which are generally within institutional resources. Another preservation solution the respondent explained was the dismantling of a DH project into media components.
Instead of migrating the system into a static representation, one leverages an institutional repository to store elements such as text, images, sound, video, and data tables separately.
The resulting elements would then require a manifest to be created, perhaps in that format of a TAR file, to explain the technology stack and how the elements can be reassembled. An Internet Archive snapshot is also a wise element to help depict the user interface and further contextualize the assets.
In the experience of the respondent, helping digital humanists understand strategic and scaled approaches to preservation is one of the greatest challenges of acting as a library services liaison. Students and faculty have an astute understanding of the techniques underpinning the basic functionality their work, but not the landscape of current preservation methodologies.
Not only is the learning curve steep for these more library-oriented topics, but the ambitions of the library and the practitioner often diverge. This creates a potential point of contention between library staff and those they attempt to counsel.
Often the liaison must exercise sensitivity in their approach to users, who themselves are experts in their field of inquiry. The broader picture also includes emerging funding consideration for national grants.
To apply too exhaustive a standard would encourage a reductive focus on the resource-intensive preservation methods that the respondent generally avoids. Like most facets of the DH preservation question, this warrants further inquiry from practical and administrative standpoints.
In a general sense, realistic expectations and practical measures ruled the overall logic of the respondent, as opposed to adherence to any given emerging standard presently available.
The idea was hatched by a team of librarians as a means to help librarians learn and develop new skills in working with digital research with the ultimate goal of enhancing their ability to collaborate and consult with researchers on their projects.
A number of tools were used to plan, document, and build out this project, and some levels of the production were designed to be preserved where others were intended to be built out, but then left alone, instead of migrated as updates become available.
The process was documented on a WordPress blog, and the ultimate product was built on Omeka. The team did preservation and versioning of code on GitHub, but they do not intend to update the code even if that means the website will ultimately become unusable.
At one point they had not updated their version of Omeka and ended up losing quite a bit of work which was frustrating. The project had to be developed on an outside server and moved to the institutional server where the code could not be changed.
The center relies on an institutional server and has a broad policy to download and maintain files in order to maintain them indefinitely on the back end.
Front end production of the project was outsourced to another institution, and the preservation of that element of the project had not been considered at the time of the interview. The front-end developer expressed that 10 years was a long time in the lifetime of a website which would make that limitation of little concernbut being able to only license items for a decade at a time clashes with the institutional policy of maintaining materials indefinitely on the server and raises questions about who will be responsible for this content over the long term if the original PI were to move on or retire.
Archivist Interview conducted and summarized by Hannah Silverman Respondent 4, who has developed a comprehensive set of open source tools for the purpose of archiving documents and resources related to a specific historical era, sees their work within the sphere of Digital Humanities.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
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[epistemic status: My bias is against the current college system doing much good. I have tried not to be bogged down by this bias, but take it into account when reading my interpretations below.] [EDIT: An earlier version of this post claimed that one paper had shown a u-shaped relationship between.
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