A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III The Hellenic civilisation was a collection of city-states or poleis with different governments and cultures that achieved notable developments in government, philosophy, science, mathematics, politics, sports, theatre and music. Athens was a powerful Hellenic city-state and governed itself with an early form of direct democracy invented by Cleisthenes ; the citizens of Athens voted on legislation and executive bills themselves. Athens was the home of Socrates Platoand the Platonic Academy.
Messengers from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus had urged the pope to send help against the armies of Muslim Turks. On November 27 the pope addressed the assembly and asked the warriors of Europe to liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims.
The response of the assembly was overwhelmingly favorable. Thus was launched the first and most successful of at least eight crusades against the Muslim caliphates of the Near East. Only the First and Third Crusades were successful.
In the long history of the Crusades, thousands of knights, soldiers, merchants, and peasants lost their lives on the march or in battle. The word "crusade" literally means "going to the Cross.
The first crusade was a grand success for the Christian armies; Jerusalem and other cities fell to the knights. The second crusade, however, ended in humiliation inwhen the armies of France and Germany failed to take Damascus. The third ended in in a compromise between English king Richard the Lion-Hearted of England and the Muslim leader Saladin, who granted access to Christians to the holy places.
The fourth crusade led to the sacking of Constantinople, where a Latin Kingdom of Byzantium was set up in and lasted for about 60 years. Other less disastrous but equally futile crusades occurred until nearly the end of the 13th century.
The last Latin outpost in the Muslim world fell in Historians have viewed the Crusades as a mixture of benefits and horrors. On one hand, there was a new knowledge of the East and the possibilities of trade to be found there, not to mention the spread of Christianity.
On the other hand, Christianity was spread in a violent, militaristic manner, and the result was that new areas of possible trade turned into new areas of conquest and bloodshed. A number of non-Christians lost their lives to Christian armies in this era, and this trend would continue in the inquisitions of the coming centuries.
The Crusades began in and ended in the mid- or late 13th century. The term Crusade was originally applied solely to European efforts to retake from the Muslims the city of Jerusalem, which was sacred to Christians as the site of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
It was later used to designate any military effort by Europeans against non-Christians.
The Crusaders carved out feudal states in the Near East. Thus the Crusades are an important early part of the story of European expansion and colonialism. They mark the first time Western Christendom undertook a military initiative far from home, the first time significant numbers left to carry their culture and religion abroad.
In addition to the campaigns in the East, the Crusading movement includes other wars against Muslims, pagans, and dissident Christians and the general expansion of Christian Europe. In a broad sense the Crusades were an expression of militant Christianity and European expansion.
They combined religious interests with secular and military enterprises.
Christians learned to live in different cultures, which they learned and absorbed; they also imposed something of their own characteristics on these cultures. The Crusades strongly affected the imagination and aspirations of people at the time, and to this day they are among the most famous chapters of medieval history.
Magyars, nomadic people from Asia, pillaged eastern and central Europe until the 10th century. Beginning aboutseveral centuries of Viking raids disrupted life in northern Europe and even threatened Mediterranean cities.
But the greatest threat came from the forces of Islam, militant and victorious in the centuries following the death of their leader, Muhammad, in By the 8th century, Islamic forces had conquered North Africa, the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, and most of Spain.
Islamic armies established bases in Italy, greatly reduced the size and power of the Byzantine Empire the Eastern Roman Empire and besieged its capital, Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire, which had preserved much of the classical civilization of the Greeks and had defended the eastern Mediterranean from assaults from all sides, was barely able to hold off the enemy.
Islam posed the threat of a rival culture and religion, which neither the Vikings nor the Magyars had done.Best HP Black Friday deals: Pavilion laptops, desktops, and more. Whether you're in the market for a business laptop, gaming desktop, or just a basic PC, HP's Black Friday sale has you covered.
Rome, Italian Roma, historic city and capital of Roma provincia (province), of Lazio regione (region), and of the country of ashio-midori.com is located in the central portion of the Italian peninsula, on the Tiber River about 15 miles (24 km) inland from the Tyrrhenian ashio-midori.com capital of an ancient republic and empire whose armies and polity defined the Western world in antiquity and left seemingly.
Timeline - The First Crusade fought for lofty ideals. The pope wanted to save Constantinople, save the Byzantine Empire, and thus heal the breech between the Eastern and Western Church.
They were able to temporarily regain the Holy Land b.
The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, in Europe was a long period of history from AD to AD. That's years! It covers the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
This was a time of castles and peasants, guilds and monasteries, cathedrals and crusades. Overview of the Crusades By ashio-midori.com First Crusade Full article: First Crusade Thus, in Western Europe, the Crusades have traditionally been regarded by laypeople as heroic adventures, though the mass enthusiasm of common people was largely expended in the First Crusade, from which so few of their class returned.
Jan 05, · Source: ashio-midori.com - the best historical atlas i ever seen Music: Globus - Crusaders of the Light PS This clip is a bit outdated. The new "3.