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Messenger For years, many have said that sports teams with Native American mascots — the Cleveland Indians, Chicago Blackhawks and Florida State Seminoles, to name a few — perpetuate stereotypes against Native people. Others have argued that these mascots are harmless; if anything, they symbolize reverence and respect, while honoring the history of Native Americans.
But as the Redskins kicked off their season on Sept.
Since then, defenders of the name — including team owner Daniel Snyder — have considered the controversy over and done with. But that stance ignores the dangerous possibility that such ethnic names and imagery affect how other people view Native Americans — possibly in subtle and damaging ways.
Our research has shown that incidental exposure to Native American sports mascots can reinforce stereotypes in people. How a name strengthens a bias In our lab, we showed participants an unfamiliar mascot; some were shown a Native American image, while others were shown an image of an animal.
When asked directly, participants, regardless of the mascot they saw, reported no differences in how warlike they thought Native Americans were.
This difference in results represents something called implicit biaswhich often takes place when asking people about socially sensitive subjects such as race or gender. Implicit bias can influence decisions ranging from hiring practices to jury preferences and criminal sentencing. Interestingly, the liberal participants in our studies were more affected by Native American mascots than were their conservative peers.
Because liberals often think of themselves as being less susceptible to racial bias, this might seem counterintuitive. But liberals also have been shown to have more malleable worldviews and be more open to new information. Some mascots more damaging than others These lab results prompted us to try to replicate our findings in a real world setting.
Indeed, our results showed that people living in cities with Native American mascots were more likely to think of Native Americans as warlike.
Detroit, home of the Tigers, and Miami, which houses the Marlins, were used as control cities. Using the same implicit measures as our earlier study, residents of Cleveland were more likely to associate Native Americans with warlike traits than residents of Atlanta, Detroit and Miami.
In other words, the more offensive the mascot, the greater the effect. And just like in our lab, liberal participants were particularly sensitive to the influence of the Native American mascot. The study represents perhaps the first real-world demonstration of the adverse effects of incidental exposure to Native American sports mascots in the general population.
The perils of stereotypes Some might wonder what the problem is with being seen as warlike. But studies have shown how stereotypes of any kind — even positive ones — carry consequences.
Paglia, Camille. Sex, Art, And American Culture: Essays. New York: Vintage Books, Print. These citations may not conform precisely to your selected citation style. Please use this display as a guideline and modify as needed. American literature - The 18th century: In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions. His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in , and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in , were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions. Essays originally published Includes bibliographical references (pages ) and index The allure of Mount Desert -- Thomas Cole in Maine -- Winslow Homer's Maine -- American waters: the flow of imagination -- Luminism and literature -- Under chastened light: the landscape of Rhode Island -- William Bradford: artist of the Arctic -- Fire and ice in American art: polarities.
Subsequent studies have shown how experiencing a positive stereotype can make people expect future prejudicial treatment.Essays originally published Includes bibliographical references (pages ) and index The allure of Mount Desert -- Thomas Cole in Maine -- Winslow Homer's Maine -- American waters: the flow of imagination -- Luminism and literature -- Under chastened light: the landscape of Rhode Island -- William Bradford: artist of the Arctic -- Fire and ice in American art: polarities.
A hardback publication titled “Essays on American Art and Artists Eleven Hundred Illustrations by Celebrated American Artists”, published by American Art Company, circa Partially leather bound hardcover copy, gilt lettering to front and spine, black .
Comment: A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition.
All pages are intact, and the cover is intact. The spine may show signs of wear. Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner ashio-midori.com: John Wilmerding.
If you are writing a 5-paragraph essay on American culture, below are ten great facts you can use in your next essay. The Harlem Renaissance took place during the s through the s, and is noted as the first point in American history when African-American achievements in art, music, and literature flourished and were widely accepted.
John Wilmerding, Princeton University's first Christopher Binyon Sarofim '86 Professor in American Art and visiting curator at the Henry R. Luce Center for the Study of American Art at the Metropolitan Museum, was deputy director of the National Gallery of Art from to Author: John Wilmerding.
The Renaissance had a profound influence on the course of the development of modern American society, culture, and, since it is a natural extension of both, artistic expression. The Renaissance influence in America brought about a new focus on humanism and as a result, a subsequent turning away from the dominant ideals put forth by the church.