Abstract With the steady increase in the number of attacks against networks and hosts, security systems such as intrusion detection systems are widely deployed into networks. In-trusion detection systems may flag large numbers of alerts, where false alerts are mixed with true ones. To understand the security threats and take appropriate actions, it is necessary to perform alert correlation. One class of alert correlation methods is the prerequisite and consequence based approach, where the prerequisite of an attack is the necessary condition to launch the attack, and the consequence of an attack is the possible outcome if the attack succeeds.
February 25, ; Accepted: May 16, ; Published: Brun is cultivated since ancient time and third in its production next to noug Guizotia abyssinica Casa and Linseed Linum ustatisumum L. It is traditionally used for different purposes including: Boiled leaves of young plants are consumed as vegetable relish.
In the farming systems, it also serves as potential break-crops for cereals. This would increase crop diversity, reduce chemical use and thereby increase profits Gan et al.
The seed cake is used as high protein feed for animals, although the presence of glucosinolates is a limiting factor.
In its native country, the oil, very often adulterated with premium oil from noug Alemayehu, is the most important product. On the other hand, the oil shows physical and chemical properties suitable for bio-diesel Cardone et al. There are opportunities which favor cultivation of oilseeds in general in the country which ranges from import substitution of edible oils to export of Alert correlation thesis value seed and oil.
It is obvious that increasing the supply of oils and fats is imperative where its per capita availability is quite low.
Despite the efforts made in the improvement of the Ethiopian Mustard, earliness and lack of high yielding varieties among the constraints for its production EARO, Therefore, in order to enhance its cultivation, developing early and high yielding varieties remains the breeding policy to achieve agronomic objectives.
Assessing the extent and pattern of genetic variability of Ethiopian mustard genotypes is thus a prerequisite which may help in identifying important genotypes for improvement of Ethiopian mustard.
A number of methods have been used for analysis of genetic variability Melchinger et al. Further, Alsemaan et al. On the other hand, Gichimu and Omondi reported that morphological characterization of five newly developed lines of arabica coffee as compared to commercial cultivars in Kenya.
They reported low genetic variation among newly developed lines of arabica coffee as compared to commercial cultivars in Kenya and emphasizing the need to broaden the genetic base of Arabica coffee in Kenya.
Knowledge of correlation coefficients is also an invaluable aid in selecting the breeding material for improving the complex traits Teklewold et al. However, this alone disregards interrelations among traits and do not show the cause and effect interrelationships.
Hence, information obtained from the correlation coefficient can be enhanced by partitioning into direct and indirect effects for a set of a prior cause-effect relationships Gravois and McNew, ; Teklewold et al.
Correlation and path analysis study in Ullah et al. This study was, therefore, executed with the objectives of assessing the extent and pattern of genetic variability and revealing the genetic correlations among agronomic traits and partition genetic correlation coefficients into direct and indirect effects.
Holetta is one of the representatives of oil seed Brassica growing areas in the central highlands of Ethiopia with its annual rainfall of mm, altitude of m a. Thirty six genotypes of Ethiopian mustard including the standard checks were used in the study.
Genotypes by origin are described in Table 1. The experiment was carried out using 6x6 simple lattice design with two replications and with a plot size of 3x1. Each genotype was planted in a plot consisting of six rows of 3 m long with spacing of 30 cm between rows. All recommended agronomic practices Alemayehu and Mesfin, were followed to raise good crop.
Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the procedures outlined by Gomez and Gomez The most similar individuals were first grouped and these initial groups were merged according to their similarities.
Principal component analysis was also done using the procedure PRINCOMP as described in SAS to clarify the relationships between two or more characters and to divide the total variance of the original characters into a limited number of uncorrelated new variables according to Wiley This indicates the existence of considerable genetic variability for selection and breeding.
Clustering produced a clear grouping of the 36 genotypes into seven clusters, whereby the individuals within any one cluster are more closely related than are individuals in different clusters Fig. The acceptable limit for number of cluster was made based on pseudo F and t2-statistics.
This phenomenon might have resulted from their similar genetic background. On the other hand, there are also genotypes with same geographical origin but grouped in different clusters which might be due to difference in their genetic background.
Besides, genotypes with different geographical origin were grouped in same cluster which might have been as a result of synchronization of selection differential applied on different components of various geographical areas. In general, the present investigation indicated that factors other than geographic diversity such as genetic drift, selection pressure, closeness in their pedigree and environment may be responsible for differential grouping of genotypes.
Similarly, these situations have been reported by various authors Teklewold et al.In order to reduce the numbers of non-relevant alerts and false positives typically generated by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) in real-world situations, several alert correlation approaches.
results and alerts -gt false alarm production. 11 Solution. Proposed Solution ; Implementing attack resistant mobile agents which can relocate itself inside the network and be elusive when a suspicious activity is sensed. Employ Immunological concept of Danger Theory and Danger Zone Establishment for effective alert correlation and false alarm reduction.
The rule-dependence model explains the commonalities between the Flynn effect and IQ gains via retesting Elijah L. Armstrong and Michael A. Woodley We present a new model of the Flynn effect.
It is proposed that Flynn effect gains are partly a function of the . One class of alert correlation methods is the prerequisite and consequence based approach, where the prerequisite of an attack is the necessary condition to launch the attack, and the consequence of an attack is the possible outcome if the attack succeeds.
Log Correlation for Intrusion Detection: A Proof of Concept Cristina Abadyz [email protected] Jed Taylory the system can trigger an alert when there is a deviation from the baseline.
However, such anomaly detection sys- ter’s Thesis examines real-time correlation and implements. This thesis explores a new spatiotemporal event correlation approach to capture the abnormal patterns of a wide class of attacks, whose activities, when observed in- dividually, may not seem suspicious or distinguishable from normal activity changes.