Harris Research on fathers has been burgeoning for the past three decades.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This is a A critical analysis of parental influence and important concept for nursing; however, research studies on policy influence of nurses in health care sector are lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents.
The eight stages of Walker and Avant approach was used to guide this concept analysis. Various databases and internet engines were searched to find all related information about the concept. Textbooks were also searched manually. English language literature reports published between and were reviewed.
Nurses have individual views on health care issues and influence health care policies in different ways. Nurses, as a part of this system, should move forward along with these changes. Then, they need to be active in the development of health policies to be better able to control their practice.
They need to acquire policy-making skills in order to address professional challenges. Nurses are expected to identify the issues deliberately and work with other decision makers to advance health care policies. They should understand the levels of power, and know who controls the resources of health services in their organizations.
It seems that the extent of applying this concept is wide and not clearly addressed in literatures.
Micro, macro, and meso. In the micro level, policies are just for especial parts, fields, or groups, and have not been made essentially by the government, whereas in the macro level, policies are for the whole country and have been made essentially by the government.
So, clarifying and defining this concept in order to develop it, especially in different levels of nursing management is essential.
By clarifying this concept, we can reach a common language and help to increase the credibility of future studies. Table 1 shows Walker and Avants's eight stages method for concept analysis.
This method is especially useful for novice concept analysts,[ 11 ] and had been successfully applied in previous analysis of the concepts.
Table 1 Open in a separate window One probable concern about using Walker and Avant approach is insufficient conceptual clarification[ 12 ] due to the context-free nature of this approach.
Thus, they suggest that if there is no theory or theoretical framework for the concept in literatures, this should be stated explicitly by the analysts. In the process suggested by Walker and Avant, the first and second stages are identifying a suitable concept for analysis and then determining its purpose.
This means it is not clear whether we can address consultation with nurses from operational levels of nursing care about health and nursing issues as influencing the policies or this is a concept that just addresses high levels of nursing management and leadership.
It is not clear which one of activities carried out in these extended levels can be introduced as policy influence. Thus, this is a new and valuable concept for nurses. The principal purpose of this concept analysis is to clarify and develop the concept and to propose a definition for it, through which nurses can better understand the importance of policies in health care system and the necessity for their involvement in policies and to have their influence on them.
The third stage is review of literature. According to Walker and Avant, review of literature should not be limited to nursing literatures to prevent bias in understanding the concept. Here is a summary of this review: Therefore, it seems that nurses should be knowledgeable about all issues related to health system, and not just caring issues.
Certainly, days of just carrying out the prescribed orders are over for nurses globally. Now it is time for nurses to be health legislators and develop practical policies.
Although these two words are different, because of their similar tone, they infer same concepts and are usually used interchangeably. In order to wildly define these two words, both as a general and as a management and health concept, analysts have referred to dictionaries, articles, and books with the approach of nursing policy and nursing management.
Policies are decisions which are made by people who have power and authority. On the other hand, policy sometimes means regulations for how to behave.
What is important for management's authorities is to understand how policies can support effective leadership. Politics is the art and science of governing.
Politics refers to people's affairs and authority of government. As we see, polities is always related to organizational process and government function, while policies sometimes are principles and acts for how to behave. Finally, politics refers to the ways and techniques for regulation and using policies.Critical Analysis of Once More to the Lake In the preface to his Collected Essays, Aldous Huxley says that “essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference.
A Meta-Analysis on Father Involvement and Early Childhood Social-Emotional Development Robby D. Harris. Research on fathers has been burgeoning for the past three decades. Parental involvement in the education of students begins at home with the parent(s) providing a safe and healthy environment, appropriate learning experiences, support, and a positive attitude about school.
Being arrested for Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Independent Research Project Driving under the influence is the act of driving a vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit.
Legal limits may vary or change. before it’s too late: an analysis of the impact of parental involvement and middle school culture on eighth graders’ academic preparedness for college by the twelfth grade.
What Research Says About Parent Involvement Many research studies support what teachers instinctively know: Students do better academically and socially when schools build positive relationships with their families.