Messenger Two things are especially striking about the massive movement of refugees into Europe: People crossing the border from Greece into Macedonia, en route to Hungary through Serbia. AFP People with children on their backs and bottles of water and lumps of bread in their hands are facing untold episodes of state harassment, and state inaction. Otherwise, he added, many more such people would be encouraged to come the way of the motherland.
Tom Paine thought of himself as a "gardener of ideas". Thomas Paine's moral and political thought raises the question, "How can we become a more self-governing society?
Reason and Self-Governing Individuals Self-governing individuals are necessary to have a self-governing society.
By self governing is meant the willingness of individuals to consciously choose and hold to principles or an ideal yet flexibly apply that ideal in diverse situations. Thomas Paine said "My country is the world and my religion is to do good.
James Tepfer describes this as "our living awareness of the Infinite Presence. This was the ever renewing source of man's reason. Placed in the language of the Age of Enlightenment, Paine believed that natural law is inscribed in the divine order, and emanates a Cosmos-a beautiful harmony and order which exists prior to and superior to history or governments.
Natural law is at least partially knowable through the moral disposition in man and the depth of his conscience. Paine wrote, "As for morality, the knowledge of it exists in every man's conscience. In this regard, Paine quotes Cicero, "The true law is right reason, comfortable to the nature of things, constant, eternal diffuse through all, which call us to duty by commanding, deters from sin by forbidding, which never loses its influence with the good.
Paine advocated moving beyond "local thoughts", and encouraged individuals to think more principled and universally, which then permitted greater flexibility in application.
Paine believed individuals can expand their ability to apply their reason for the good to greater and greater circles of social interaction. It is "by the exercise of reason that man can discover God. Take away that reason, and he would be incapable of understanding anything. Self-Governance and Societal Interdependence Paine believed that man can infuse and draw out the good of fellow men in society in theatres of political participation by using his conscience and his reason.
Society arose because men needed one another, and is a workshop for its citizens to experiment and self-correct. In all cases she made his natural wants greater than his individual powers" R of M pg. It is through our sociability that we can expand our perspectives to greater mutual understanding and more inclusive, universal thought.
In the process of reasoning with each other, we can view our own limitations, those of others, and correct our errors in thinking. In order to let happiness blossom in society, men need the right to express their conscience.
Self-evident human rights such as freedom of conscience and religion are the foundations of equality. Paine felt that human rights get translated into shared natural rights through making claims to be tested by reason. In order to help enforce these rights, then civil and legal rights by government create a civil society for citizens to manifest their political claims.
Each right has a corresponding duty. Paine said our first duty is to be kind to others. Paine also said that a person's corresponding duty is to allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves.
From this basis we can use our abilities to promote mutual understanding. These expanding circles of reciprocal duties and rights weave a tapestry, built on democratic norms, of liberty in the context of societal interdependence. The right of commerce was seen as transforming the mind-set of feudal, dependent relations between men and their government.
It helped transform subjects into confident citizens. Trade was viewed not as laissez-faire, but in a web of social interdependence. It was seen as a major modality for individuals to use their active minds to develop better mutual understanding of others interests in society.
While aware that too much indulgence in commerce could lead to the decline of spirit and patriotism, making reason subservient to commercial interests, Paine believed commerce was an important element in a strong self-governing society of expanding universal happiness.
Paine felt that man would use his religion of reason to place commerce within a broader quest for lifelong education in the arts, sciences, engineering, and philosophy in order to progress to a universal society and universal happiness. For Paine, knowledge starts with the Divine.
Art, science, and commercial enterprise can be placed in service to humanity and universal happiness.
Some men and women, through greed or disproportionate natural or social advantages, will contribute to others being systematically impoverished in the imperfections of manmade civilization.
Since in a natural state, "The earth is the common property of the human race"; thus each human being is equally entitled to have dignity and minimal share of the earth's bounty, including clean water, air, and access or rents from land.
P-Social and Political Thought p. Democratic communities will have to choose to redistribute some minimal baseline of societal resources to those at least most vulnerable not as charity, but as a right in the name of social harmony. Government and the Common Good Paine's ideal of a self-governing society is encapsulated as "The more perfect civilization is, the less occasion has it for government, because the more does it regulate its own affairs and govern it.Rights of Man was published in two parts, the first in , the second a year later, in Thomas Paine, The Rights of Man () Edit.
History Comments Share. The theatricality of the events surrounding the French Revolution were not lost on either writer.
Paine’s work is about Revolution, starting from the title to its Part the. COMMON SENSE Thomas Paine (February 14, ) Paine, Thomas () - An Englishman who came to America in , he was a political philosopher who promoted change through revolution rather than reform.
Paine is most renowned for his activities advocating democracy. Common Sense .
Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April – 10 September ) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book.
Aristotle Biography. Born. c. B.C.E. Chalcidice, Greece Died. c Early life Aristotle was born in the small Greek town of Stagiros (later Stagira) in the northern Greek district of Chalcidice.
His father, Nicomachus, was a physician who had important social connections. Aristotle's work was often misunderstood in later times.
The. Thomas Paine. Writer and Revolutionary 3rd - 7th CCSS. Designed. students read an article about the opinions of Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson. Students then respond to 12 short answer questions. From drawing political cartoons illustrating events of the Boston Massacre to writing a diary entry as a shopkeeper during the Boston Tea.
Literature and the Arts in the Revolutionary Era. By the time of the American Revolution (–83), American writers had ventured beyond the Puritan literary style and its religious themes and had developed styles of writing that grew from distinctly American experiences.